BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Sugars

Sugar, Flour and Sugar Quiz

-color- caramelization
-tenderizer- tenderizes gluten protein structure
-food for yeast- sucrose, maltose, lactose, fructose
-preservative- jams + marmalades
-creaming and foaming agent to assist in leavening

kitchen sugar is sucrose, refined sugar from sugar cane and sugar beets- composition is identical
-in processing- cane is crushed to extract juice, solution is boiled and cleaned, uncrystalized liquid by product is molasses
-raw sugar is cleaned further= turbinado sugar- products is further bleached= granulated, white sugar

Turbinado sugar
-demerara sugar, closest to raw sugar
-creamy color and caramel flavor
-high + variable moisture makes it an undesirable substitute for brown granulated sugar
hygroscopic- property of sugar that absorbs moisture

Sanding sugar
- large, uniform crystals
- -used for garnishing baked goods
- egg wash and dust w/ sugar before baking
- excellent option for crème brulee, on top of amaretti or brioche

Granulated sugar
-size may vary
-source- sugar beets or cane
-aids in preserving, creaming agent, foaming agent, tenderizer, caramelizer

Brown sugar
-granulated sugar w/ a portion of molasses reintroduced
-more hygroscopic than granulated
-imparts smoky flavor

Superfine sugar
-more finely ground
-cuts in finer air cell structure when creaming or foaming

-6x or 10x- ground 10’s as fine as granulated
- Percentage of cornstarch added during processing, helps control spread by adding additional starch + cutting in finer air cell structure

Corn syrup
- high fructose corn syrup
- liquid form: hygroscopic, aids in crystallization in sugar cooking, helpful in baking- prevents sugar from crystallizing. Honey naturally high in fructose
Light syrup- not as much glucose
Dark syrup- molasses added back for flavor
Corn syrup- higher amt glucose
Liquid glucose- highest amt glucose, extremely sticky, holds lots of water, absorbs lots of moisture

Glucose- thick syrup extracted from starch
-less sweet and hygroscopic
-can be substituted for corn syrup

Invert sugar- honey
-sugar syrup produced by refining sucrose w/ an acid
-stays in liquid state and resists crystallization
-20-30% sweeter than sucrose

-made of glucose and fructose, created by honey bees from nectar collected from flowers
-highly hygroscopic

Malt sugar
-liquid sweetener made form germinated barley or wheat grains
-aids in fermentation and gluten elasticity

Carbohydrates= maltose, sucrose
Maltose= fructose
Sucrose= glucose, fructose

Breads made with beers use maltose

-liquid by product of sugar refining
-edible molasses only from sugar cane

Maple syrup
-sap of sugar maple
-1 tree makes 12 gal sap each season, 30-40 gal sap= 1 gal syrup

Flour/ Sugars Quiz
Which of the following flours is strongest?
Patent flour pumpernickel flour
Pastry flour cake flour

Which of the following is not a function of sugar in baked goods?
Increase keeping qualities help crust develop color
Create firmness or structure provide food for yeast

Starchy interior of wheat grain is called-
Gliadin germ
Gluten endosperm

Invert sugar has which of the following properties?
It is sweeter than regular granulated sugar
it doesn’t crystallize as easily as regular sugar
it helps keep baked goods moist
all of the above

How do you test for a bucket of bread flour?
Feels smooth when between fingers
Feels coarse when rubbed between finger
Clumps when pressed in palm of hand
Falls apart when pressed in palm of hand

10x sugar is pure sugar (sucrose) –False
Being a whole grain, wheat flour does not contain any fat so there is not chance for it going rancid- False
Molasses can be extracted from cane sugar as well as beet sugar- False

List parts of wheat kernel and explain their role:
-Endosperm is interior part of kernel and makes up most flours
-bran is protective shell of kernel and is very fibrous
-germ contains proteins and fats and can go bad if ground and not refrigerated

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