BPA 100: Biscuits and Scones

BPA 100
Day 1, Wednesday

Biscuits and Scones

M.O.P. (Method of Production) is Biscuit method, or cutting method. We are cutting the fat into the flour, looking for layers of fat and flour. Your fat must be absolutely cold, chilled in the freezer is best, then slowly adding the liquid around the sides, having minimum contact with the flour. You don’t want to over mix.

First measure the ingredients, sifting the dry together. You are looking for large chunks of butter, around walnut sized. Today we used buttermilk in our biscuits. The milk should be poured around the side of the bowl, then gently mixed together with the bowl scraper, then mixed further with your hands. It is important to chill the dough and harden the butter again. Then roll it out, cut with cookie cutters, wash with an egg wash, and bake them off. Laminated dough needs a lot more heat initially and to have the butter melt later. Biscuits have less sugar and won’t caramelize in the oven. There is a distinction between an American biscuit and a European biscuit; an American biscuit is what a European may call a savory scone, and a biscuit is the European word for cookie.

Buttermilk Biscuits
20 oz bread flour
20 oz pastry flour
.75 oz salt
2 oz sugar
2.5 oz baking powder
14 oz butter
1lb 10 oz milk

The butter was kept in the freezer until needed

Chef’s Demo- Sift the dry ingredients together onto parchment and toss in the butter. Take the flour and flatten it with the butter. As you go rub the fat and flour together, coating both parts. Also mix in the salt, sugar, and baking powder. You are looking for large butter chunks. Pour the milk around the side and over and using the bowl scraper fold everything together. When it comes together and the milk is absorbed you can start mixing with your hands. Dump it out onto the workbench and continue mixing. You need to knead the dough a little, to give it slight texture, but you don’t want it really soft, you still want those large chunks of butter. The bowl scraper is good because it keeps your hands and table clean. Push the dough and bits back together.

Chunks of butter tossed with the dry ingredients. All ingredients added before coming together.

Fold over the dough 2-3 times to get it more laminated. You don’t want smooth dough. Flatten it into a circle and put it onto parchment; the parchment will assist you in folding it over making some more laminations. Wrap it in plastic wrap. The dough needs at least 30 minutes to rest in the cooler; this gives time for the gluten to relax, the fat to harden so it holds its shape, and for the starch to absorb some more of the milk. You can make variations to this recipe by adding cheese, bacon, or other savory ingredients.

Form the dough into a rounded mound, wrap in parchment and chill it. The dough will rise slightly and firm up after resting in the cooler.

For the rolling out of the biscuit dough: Our dough was resting for over an hour in the cooler. To begin I dusted my bench with bread flour; the higher gluten and lower starch means it is absorbed less by the dough. Because of the buttermilk and the baking powder the dough feels slightly leavened and firm. I beat the dough down a little to flatten it, this breaks the butter up a little more evenly. Then roll over the dough, not pressing it out but rolling evenly over the top. The dough is elastic and shrinks back some as you roll it, this is because of the gluten. I roll it to ¾” to 1” thick. Using a 2” or greater dip ring cutter I cut straight down. You want a smooth straight edge; otherwise the biscuit will bake and end up lopsided.

Visible chunks of butter. Use the circle ring to cut a good sized biscuit.

Be sure to chill it again and brush with an egg wash and finally bake at 425 degrees F for about 10-12 minutes.

After they came out of the oven I saw how the tops of my biscuits were uneven and it looked like the tops had slid off, Chef said my butter was probably too chunky and when it melted the layers slid over. Some peoples were very smooth on top with many visible layers; he said that these were over mixed. You want to see the lamination when you pull it apart, to see a little bit of gluten developed in the center. No matter how they looked they tasted amazing!

We had three different egg washes to compare: water and whole eggs, milk and whole eggs, and cream and egg yolks. It is a good idea to use the pastry brush first to clear off excess flour then proceed with brushing on the wash. The cream and yolk mixture gives a soft texture. If you have too much wash you will not have a nice glaze on top but scrambled eggs instead.

For the scones today we made a half recipe of the Orange-Chocolate Chip variation.

Basic Scones
17 oz pastry flour
4 oz sugar
1 oz baking powder
¾ t salt
4 ½ oz butter
5 oz cream or milk
2 eggs

Orange- Chocolate Chip Scones
Yields about 6, 2.5 oz scones
8.5 oz pastry flour
.5 oz baking powder
1/8 t salt
2 ¼ oz butter
2 ½ oz cream or milk
1 egg
10 oz chocolate chips
Zest of 1 orange
Butter, eggs, and cream kept chilled until needed

Chef’s Demo- Scaled out flour and baking powder are sifted together over parchment, then add the sugar and salt and pour into your mixing bowl. Add the cold butter and toss. You could cut in the butter like we did for the mealy dough by making the pieces of butter smaller, making the dough tenderer. You should take the butter further than hazelnuts to get a good crumb; the fat will be rubbed better and create a tender texture. The butter will be in fairly small pieces compared to the biscuits. After the butter is cut in you can add the chocolate chips and zest the orange directly over the bowl. By adding the zest now the essential oils of the zest will be strapped in the starches and the fat, carrying more flavors into the final product. Because this is a smaller recipe it is ok to add the chocolate chips now, but if you were making a very large recipe, say 10x’s, then you would want to add it later as the handling of the dough might cause the chips to begin to melt.

Cut the butter into smaller pieces than with the Biscuit dough. Zesting the orange over the flour and butter will capture more of the essential oils.

Have the cream and egg whisked together, and pour the liquids along the side of the bowl. If you use milk instead of cream, the scone will be lower in fat but it will not be as tall. You want to get as much liquid out of the bowl as possible; having less liquid can change the dynamic of the recipe. Use the bowl scrapper and stir in the cream, again being careful not to over mix. You don’t want to work the gluten too much, the less it is worked the tenderer it will be. When the dough starts to come together finish mixing with your hands.

Slowly pour the egg cream mixture along the sides of the bowl. Fold gently to incorporate all of the ingredients but don't over mix.
The color will be more yellow because of the egg, and it will be smoother, like mealy dough, compared to the biscuits. The cream is higher in fat than the buttermilk, as well as being more viscous, making stiffer dough. Line a pie tin with plastic wrap and flatten the ball of dough into the base. It should be about ½” thick. Close the plastic wrap and place the dough in the cooler. After it is completely chilled it can be rolled out.
Wrap the dough in plastic wrap and chill. The rolled dough should be between 1/2" to 3/4" thick
Before rolling out the scone dough be sure to dust the bench with bread flour. The dough has a nice shape already from the container. Roll it to an even thickness, not too much further, to about 1/2” to ¾”. It will rise to 1” after baking. I wanted 2 ½ oz scones so I measure my dough and divided it, seeing that I would get about 6 pieces. I cut the dough like a pie using my bench scrapper, cutting it in half first and then making the individual pieces. Luckily the first one I cut weighed 2.6 oz, so I could use that as a template for the rest of my scones.

I wanted my scones to weigh 2.5 oz, but I used this one at 2.6 as a judge and cut the rest slightly smaller than this.
As you cut them you can see the texture is very different from the biscuits. There are various ways you can finish these scones, with flavored sugar on top, streusel, or even rolling them thinner and filling them with jam. I finished mine with an egg yolk and cream egg wash, which will make a soft texture. Chill them after glazing with the wash. These scones bake at 425 degrees for about 12 minutes.

I was happy with my final product; my scones were a soft golden color on top and had a nice texture. I broke one in half and it had a nice crumb and a slight orange taste, I was worried it would be very strong. I would really like to try other variations of this recipe with different additives such as berries and cinnamon.


BPA 100: First Day of Class

BPA 100
Day 1, Wednesday

Convection and Deck Ovens

We began BPA 100 in the other kitchen today; one that actually gives us space to work, and that has ovens. This class will be focused on baking and technique, not so much on things like custards or sauces. At the end of each session we will arrange our final products on a sheet tray with the grading rubric for the day. Chef will grade our products and provide us with important feedback; ways to improve, what went wrong and what was right, etc. We must be able to know the uses of the tools in our baking kits, as well as their names. Chef suggested printing out the recipe for each day as when we make adjustments or vary the recipe it is important to note them on the recipe for next time.

The responsibilities of the Steward, Sanitarian, and Demo Assistant are still basically the same for this class; in addition the Steward will retrieve things from the walk in cooler and the storeroom, the Sanitarian will assign roles to classmates for clean up, and the Demo Assistant will set up the ovens. Chef Mangalore explained the differences of working in this kitchen, namely the use of the deck and convection ovens.
The basics of the convection oven: ON/ OFF button with a light indicating when it is on, temperature setting with plus/ minus arrow keys, a timer, a steam button, and a program button. You must be careful when opening the door as a lot of hot air will come out; i.e. the principal of a convection oven: it cooks by air passing over a heat source and blowing around the food. There are air vents on the sides on the interior where this hot air comes out. It is important to have the parchment paper weighted down properly or else it will begin blowing around in the oven, not good for anyone’s products. The timer button will only be used if we are baking something as a class, otherwise each person should use their own timer since products are put in at differing times. The steam button is used when baking bread and the damper/ flue is there to release the hot steam that gets trapped. We don’t use the program button since we don’t have any pre-programmed items set in the oven. The convection generally only takes about 15 minutes to heat up. There are two large arrows that when pressed rotate the rack spindle at the top of the oven; the spindle should be facing you in order to load and clear the oven. To load the oven just push the speed rack into the oven and it will lock in place at the top spindle and the bottom latch. When the oven is on, be sure to listen for the exhaust fan above to be on, there is a fan button if it is not already on. To pull out the rack, be sure to use pot holders and do the reverse. Leave the pot holder or hot towels on the rack so others know it is hot.

The deck oven has four decks and each deck has stone on the bottom, providing direct heat for products. This is good for things such as breads and delicate items such as soufflé and custards that don’t bake as well in a convection oven. There is a master ON/OFF switch at the bottom, with an indicator light for when it is on. The opening to the oven is smaller; this keeps more hot air in and the oven temperature more constant. There is a temperature dial with an indicator light letting you know that the oven is not fully preheated. The black meter on the gage is the actual temperature of the oven. There is a red button for the steam chamber, when pressed it releases a pretty strong steam. When the steam cycle is finished a red light turns on alerting you to this. The steam makes a nice shine on your baguettes and other breads. There are three heat dials. One where the heat comes from the top and bottom near the oven door, serving as an air curtain keeping the hot air in; another is the top heating coil, good for cookies where you want a golden brown color on top but not good for custards or cakes that you don’t want to brown too quickly; and the third is the heat on the bottom. It is a good idea to write down the setting for each recipe. The damper release knob is for steam release. These kinds of ovens take a long time to heat up, up to 2 hours, because of the stone shelf on the bottom of each deck. It is the responsibility of the demo assistant to make sure the ovens are at the temperature we need for the day’s baking. The speed racks are kept next to the oven for easy loading and unloading. On the other side of the oven are grid racks that lay on top of the stone, creating an air gap between the sheet tray and the stone. This keeps the bottoms of cookies from burning.

The retarder/ proofer is used as a cooler or as a bread proofing chamber. There is a dial at the top for each mode, with an indicator light for each. The proof mode heats the chamber to 80 degrees F; the temperature is shown digitally at the top.


BPA 102: The Baking Process; Yeast Breads and Enriched Doughs

Production stage for Yeast breads
Divided into 10 stages
-scaling ingredients- mise en place- 1 sheet tray
-mixing + kneading dough
-blending stage
-pick up
-clean up- all flour picked off sides, bowl clean

Bulk Fermentation/ Bench fermentation
-make huge mixer worth of dough, help yeast come back + flavors develop
-100% proof- doubles in size
-has random size gas bubbles
-punch down dough- get ride of excess carbon dioxide bubbles
-cut into sizes
-then rounded w/ clean finish on top, let rest 10 mins to allow gluten to relax
-make up- same as shape dough
-after shaped put in proofing chamber- needs to double in size- baguettes 1” to 2” end, humidity in room 80%, 90F, yeast comfortable, moisture + heat to grow in size
For lean doughs- then proofed + baked
- a lot of ovens have steam chamber- steam chamber- steam released- starch on outside gelatinizes- nice crust

Yeast bread mixing methods-
-SDM- straight dough methodg
-direct- mix all ingredients together
Pre-Fermentation- dough mixed in stages, dough from day before- pate fermentee
-sponge, old dough, sourdough starter- no commercial yeast
Sugars converted into acids + alcohol
Sponge- batter equal parts flour+ water w/ little bit yeast, let ferment couple hours or overnight

Bulk/Bench- entire dough fermented as a bulk
-Proofing- rise given, almost doubled in size, proofing room

3 factors controlled
-Ingredients- sugar, good for yeast- food, when too high, kill yeast- salt
-Dough temperature- if cold takes longer to ferment, if hot ferments fast
In professional kitchen never add warm water- use cold- mixer raises temp from friction between paddle and dough
-Room temperature- proof box/ room for doughs, if not will go faster, cold (winters) longer, no fixed amt of time- depends on temp

Qualities of Bread
-judged by- external + internal appearance- if too much salt bread is heavy, too little- crust is light. Sugar- too much- crust caramelized
-keeping properties

Egg Washes
-whole eggs + water- lot of shine
-eggs + milk- lactose makes for darker color
-milk- soft crust

Enriched Yeast Dough
-usually for breakfast- brioches, pastries, high fat

straight dough method

-molded and baked in pans or braided + cooled before unmolding to keep texture intact
-because of amount of fat
-never want to proof beyond 125F, yeast dies
-warm environment quick but reduces flavor
- b products- acids, alcohols, add flavor (from fermentation)
-retarder- put in cold area- not ferment as quickly

Methods for determining doneness
-Internal temp of 190F to 210F for lean dough
-tapping bottom for hollow sound- if not then moisture still there
-brown crust has formed
-internal temp for enriched dough 180-190F because high amts sugar and fat

Proofing + Baking Enriched yeast dough
-collapse easily, if over proofed, 85F, 80% humidity to proof, lower temp, below 85F best
-leave a little under proofed- butter coats gluten + makes more unstable- underproof makes more stable
-increase amt of yeast b/c added sugar bakes at lower temp, not above 400F

Laminated doughs
-puff pastry, croissants

Puff Pastry
- sweet + savory preps
- -no leavening agent- layers of fat + dough, moisture converts to steam + helps rise
-bouchees, canapé, vol-au-vents, feuilletees, pinwheels, bear claws, etc.

Croissant- lean dough/ Danish- enriched dough
-leavened by yeast + steam in layers, some have eggs

-Fat content very high, almost 50%

Danish incorporates softened butter in place of kneaded butter, contains eggs + yolks, softer dough

BPA 102: The Baking Process; Cakes

Batters w/ high percentage fat + sugar
Divide ingredients based on functions
-Tougheners- eggs w/ protein, proteins
-Tenderizers – relaxing effect on gluten- fats, sugars, relax proteins- increase coagulation pt of proteinds
-Moisteners- butter, oils, milk, dairy, anything w/ water, brown sugars
-Driers- ingreds w/ more starch, absorbs moisture, flours, c. of tartar
-Leaveners- eggs if whipped, chemical, mechanical
-Flavorings- usually oil based, nut flavors, vanilla

Goal of mixing batter to combine ingredients uniformly- incorporate air cells, develop proper texture

Tunneling- problem from overmixing- air bubbles are baked in

High Fat- creaming method- structure relies on creamed fat and includes butter cakes + high ratio cakes, 2 stage cake
Egg Foam- structure relies on whipped eggs- spongy cake- includes genoise, angel food + chiffon cake

Creamed fat- butter (creaming method) high fat

Chemical leaveners- pound cake, high ratio

Genoise- not fat, entire cake whipped together, egg foam

Angel food- only egg whites, very light, lack flavor, olds well when doing mousses + fillings

Chiffon cake- use oil not butter, creamed w/ eggs then dry folded in

BPA 102: The Baking Process; Baked Goods, Cookies, Pie Dough

Baking Process
Product put in oven
Gasses form- proteins + starch trap air in strands- if don’t cook it enough whole thing will collapse
Starches gelatinize- slimy consistency, protein coagulate, fats melt
All happen simultaneously
Moisture evaporates, sugars caramelize- get color on bread
Carry over baking- residual heat in pan, continues cooking. If want really moist- un pan items
Staling- all moisture evaporates + gets dry

Baked Goods
Quickbreads- chemical or mechanical leavening- no yeast. Use baking soda, powder, ammonium potassium

Breads w/ yeast require extra time for resting + proofing, fermentation

Baking soda- alkaline, needs just acids + moisture
-since starts leavening/reacting right away, must be baked immediately

Baking powder- mixture soda + acids
Single acting- moisture + acids (like soda)
Double acting- needs moisture + acids, heat triggers second type acid + final rising + reactions occur
Bakers ammonia is used + adds crispiness usually in cookies + crackers

Chemical leavening agents must be tightly covered when stored- absorb a lot of flavor

Mixing quickbreads- will usually have a liquid
Biscuit method- cut butter into flour, end up w/ flat pieces of butter, as roll out have thin layers of dough + fat, makes flaky. Fat is hard and cold
Muffin method- usually use melted fats- oil or melted butter, mix all ingredients, very simple, well method- flour w/ well in middle then add wet ingredients. Fat is melted/liquid
Creaming method- have solid fats- but softened, cream w/ sugars then liquids (eggs in cookies) to have good emulsion, then dry
-cookies, brownies, poundcakes; usually high in fat- contributes to flavor + tenderness

Drop cookies- like choc chip w/ scoop + bake
Ice box- roll dough into log or shape, chill, cut in slices, bake
Bar- brownies, lemon bars, baked as whole + cut out
Roll/ Cut outs- sugar dough, roll w/ pin, shapes, gingerbread, sugar cookies
Press/Bagged- piping bag, hand press, piped into shape
Wafer- lace cookies, very thin batter spread out + baked, crispy, ice cream cone

Cookie textures
Crispy- lot of fat, lot of sugar, low liquid, strong flour
Softness- little fat, little amt. sugar, use hygroscopic sugars, corn syrup, weak flours
Chewy- lot of liquid, + fat + hygroscopic sugars, strong flours
Spread- high fat, lot of granulated sugar, high in liquid, weaker flour

-chewier + fudgier, bar cookies
-sweeter + denser

Biscuit method
Flaky vs. Tender-
Tenderness- when all fats evenly distributed, when fat shortens gluten strands, when baking fat melts, coats flour
Flakiness- fat as spacer between dough layers

Pastry doughs
Pate Brisee- pie dough
-flaky dough- gets mushy- absorbs liquid
-mealy dough- fat evenly distributed, for bottom of pie
Pate Sucree- used for tartes
Pate Sablee- mix into sand like consistency, extremely rich + crisp dough, for rich filling- chocolate cream filling for tarte, like gram cracker crust

Nice, Flaky crust
-solid, cold fat
-low protein flour, AP or Pastry
-add an acid such as lemon juice, oj, or vinegar- to denature the protein, relax the gluten
-Avoid adding too much water- sprinkle are carefully, ice water
-Don’t over mix
-Reduce gluten development
-Reduce handling/warming of fat
-Chill fat after each stage
-Allow dough to rest to relax gluten

BPA 102: The Baking Process; Mixing and Cooking Methods

Once ingredients are measured all baked goods must be mixed

M.O.P.- method of productions, i.e. creaming method

Mixing distributes ingredients evenly and helps form gluten and aerates the dough
- if don’t mix well have chunks. Not same final product, ife chunks butter- uneven spread when bakes
- - doughs have low moisture content- holds shape as made
- -batters more moisture (water, milk, dairy, fat, honey) consistency more slack

Mixing methods
Beating- wooden spoon or paddle, mix everything vigorously. Not very specific, commonly used
Blending- mixing two ingredients together, i.e. fruit purees in a blender, half +half and eggs in muffin, flour + baking powder in cookies
Creaming- incorporating fat and sugar, incorporating air, longer mix- lighter it gets, usually done in electric mixer w/ paddle. Mechanical leavener for cakes-air- be careful when mixing/folding not to bread up air bubbles
Cutting- take fat (butter/shortening/margarine) and cut into flour, distribute solid fat into flour. Food processor may break up fats too much
Folding- very lightly mixing dry and wet, liquids + flour w/out loosing a lot of air, if over fold/mix cake becomes rubbery and dense
Kneading- use hands + work the protein in dough, more develop + work gluten/dough- stronger, more stable it gets
Sifting- of dry ingredients, i.e. flour +baking soda, 2 reasons- remove lumps from humidity + pressure (compacting) want light flour, fluffy- make better final product for foam cakes. Gets rid of debris falling into container
Whipping- whisking, balloon whisk- flexible, silicone covered whisks good for low fat products like candies, not for fat products where they slide off surface

Cooking Methods
Dry heat- usually used for baking a lot, deck ovens, food a little dryer, convection ovens, for batter + dough
Moist heat- use steam heat for cooking; vegetables- steamed, blanched, dumplings, meat, melting choc in water bath, makes food more tender

Deck oven- table where put sheet tray, heat around
Convection oven- heat sources + fan- blow onto goods and bakes, air constantly moving
Heat transferred-
Conduction- metal to metal, direct contact, food product to heat sources- food to water- pizza stone
Convection- air, heated air- convection oven
Radiation- electrical heat source- broiler in oven, heat on top, deck/conventional oven

Broiling- done through air, direct heat from top, radiates to product

Deep frying- hot oil, put in doughnut batter, etc.

Pan frying- little bit of oil/ butter + product

Sautéing- more oil/ fat, for fruit

Moist Cooking- difference in water temperatures
Boiling- 212F, put products in boiling water
Poaching- fruits, vacuum packed then poached just below boiling- keeps flavor in, moist, sugars don’t caramelize b/c below boiling point
Simmering- just below boiling, one or two bubbles in water- creams and sauces

BPA 102: The Baking Process

Baking Process and Leaveners

More liquid than dry= batter
More dry than liquid= dough

9 stages of baking process
-Gasses form- in cookies- cream butter and sugar + incorporate air
-Gasses are trapped- gluten protein network, starch traps
-Starches gelatinize- first to harden when baking
-Proteins coagulate- cook, structure of protein stays the same, meringues- when baked or coagulated
-Fats melt- at either 3 stages, depends on fat
-Water evaporates- see in breads a lot, steam rises in bread
- Sugars caramelize- sucrose
-Carry over baking- will continue cooking even when out of oven, take out a little sooner
-Staling- after baking done, best store baked good at room temp or in freezer, cooler sucks out moisture- increases staling

Leaven or Leaving Agent
-to raise (as bread) w/ a leaven
-substance used to produce fermentation in a dough or liquid;
-a material (as baking powder) used to produce a gas that lightens dough or batter
-leaving agent reacts

Three types leavening agents:
Physical or mechanical-
Air- whipping air into meringues
-churning ice cream (over run)
-creaming butter and sugar until get light and fluffy
Steam- breads, choux pastry, steam rises to surface + takes dough with it
Choux paste

-baking powder, baking soda, ammonium bicarbonate


Chemical leaveners- mixtures or compounds that typically release carbon dioxide when react w/ moisture, heat, + acidity
-baking powder, soda
-ammonium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate

Baking soda
-bicarbonate of soda
-soluble in water
-white solid that is crystalline but appears as fine powder
-has slight alkaline taste
-reacts w/ acids such as lime juice, buttermilk, cream of tartar
-starts reacting immediately after coming in contact w/ water – product cant be stored as long
-recipes must contain some acid to neutralize strong taste of sodium carbonate after baking- chocolate served as acid in choc chip cookies
-helps darken a product, such as devils food cake, choc chip cookies
-store in air tight container to avoid exposure to humidity

Baking Powder
-bicarbonate of soda + starch+ acid salts
Single Acting
-needs moisture to activate
-has only 1 acid salt for stability such as cream of tartar
Double Acting
-needs heat + moisture to activate= more stable

Biological Leaveners- yeast
-Micro organism that release carbon dioxide as part of life cycle, can be used to leaven products
-varieties of yeast are most often used; Saccharmocices Cerevisae- bakers yeast- targets sugar and cereals
- yeast leaves behind waste by products that contribute to flavor of yeast breads
-in sour dough breads, flavor enhanced by various lactic or acetic acid bacteria
-yeast east starch- broken down into carbon dioxide, by product is acid

Converts fermentable sugars such as starch and maltose present in dough into carbon dioxide

Also exists wild yeast

Yeast available to bakers in 3 forms
Compressed- mixture of yeast + starch w/ approx 70% moisture content, must be refrigerated, keep up to two weeks at most
Active dry- virtually no moisture, dormant, can be stored w/out refrigeration for months, put in warm water before use to wake up yeast
Instant dry- can be added directly to dry ingreds in a bread formula w/out rehydrating

-food for yeast- starches, sugars
-retardants- controls/ delays fermentation- acids+ salts
-yeast will die on baking- beyond 110-120F
-salt is enemy of yeast
-thermal death point 138F

Physical leaveners
Air- meringues, sabayon, soufflé
Steam- laminated dough- puff pastry, croissants, Choux pastry- éclairs, profiteroles

BPA 102: Grocery and Produce

Grocery + Produce
-dry goods- room temp
-canned goods- pie filling, cherries, etc.
-frozen foods

Dry goods- store room
-herbs/spice, nuts, oils, flours, meals, grains, legumes, coffee, tea, etc.

Almonds, cashews, chestnuts, coconut, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, walnuts
Purchase forms- whole, shelled, raw, roasted, salted, halves, pieces, chopped, ground (flour or meal), slices, slivers, paste
Storage- air tight container, cool dry place, frozen up to one year

Sweeteners- keep in air tight container, cool dry place

Trimoline- invert sugar, all fructose, used in choc + ice creams

Fructose is sweeter than glucose

Flours + Meals
-categorized by gluten content
-high gluten- for chewy breads
-bread flour
-all purpose
-self rising

categorized by grain
-refined flour
-refined wheat
Cornmeal, rye flour, rice, millet, soya

-long grain- fragrant, not as high in starch, wont stick together; Carolina, Basmati
-short grain- high starch; Arborio, sushi
-brown- whole grain
-white- polished
-parboiled rice- rice grain part boiled, then dried out, retains more nutrients

-wild rice
-black rice- glutenous
-red rice- very nutty

Wheat- berries, bulgur

Coffee- bean types- Arabica (75% of production), Rubusta (25% production)- higher quality but disease prone

Quality factors in green coffee- before roasted
-bean type
-growing location- higher altitudes are better
-processing- washing, what has been done to it, removing beans from fruit
-green coffee beans are roasted to give flavor

-caffeine is alkaloid in coffee
-decaf is 97% caffeine free
-removed before roasting
-chemical extraction-steamed to soften beans then solvents used to remove caffeine
-swiss water method- soaked in hot water to extract caffeine- more expensive

-black fermented + graded by leaf size
Souchong- largest, Pekoe- medium, Orange Pekoe- smallest
Green- not fermented
Oolong- partially fermented

Canning Process
-product is blanched- emerged in boiling water for a couple seconds- flavors sealed in
-placed in solution with salt, sugar, acid, combination
-vacuum sealed
-“cooked” when reaches specific core temp, then chilled immeditately

#10 can, 6 cans/pack 109 fl oz
-most impt can size, most used in kitchen

make sure get what paid for
-gross weight- weight product + packaging
-net weight- product w/out container
- drained weight- product w/out container or packing liquid (syrup, fillers)

viscosity- thickness of liquid

frozen fruits + vegetables
-quick frozen- keep color + flavor better than can, reduce formation of ice crystals
block- like frozen spinach
IQF- individually quick frozen- strawberries, separated
-store at -10F, avoid freezer burn- keep containers sealed, otherwise dries out + smells, looks bad
thaw slowly

- pack sizes for products vary widely
case/crate, flat, lug, bushel, peck, count, bag/sack, cello (cranberries)

-Hydrocooled- cold water, stop ripening, kept in controlled temps
-waxing- apples- seals, no moisture lost- stays fresher longer
-controlled atmosphere- reduced oxygen chambers, delayed ripening
-ethylene ripening- all produce picked red, then ripened in ethylene room. Doesn’t get final nutrients from tree ripening
-irradiation- makes sure have no bugs/ diseases from other countries. Long process, have to be bought green/ red ripened later in chamber
-precut- carrots, mangoes, pineapple

Growing terms
-field grown- w/ soil
-hydroponic- grown in water w/ nutrients
-organic- no pesticides
-heirloom- special varietals of tomatoes, applies, specific breeds, can be grown from seeds

Fruit categories: berries, citrus, exotics (not native to an area) grapes, melons, pomes, stone fruits, tropicals

Pectin- natural thickener cellulose in fruit, holds moisture when freeze of get old- juice/ moisture releases

Slipskins- citrus fruits such as mandarins; skin peels of very easily, can slip off

Pay attention to wash the outside of melons, where salmonella would be on the rind, because grown on ground

Clingstone peaches used for canning
Free stone eaten out of hand

Bananas grow in “hand” w/ 5-30 fingers- each finger 5-6 bananas

Most pineapple comes from Hawaii, when cleaning get all eyes out

BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Fats and Dairy

-general term for butter, lard, shortening, oil, + margarine
-color (in some cases, butter)
-moisture- butter, oils
-leavening- butter, shortening
-extend shelf life- oils
-shorten gluten strands- coats strands + keeps moist

-produced by agitating cream
-80% milk fat (higher in european style)
-16% water
-2-4% milk solids (lactose, etc.)
-melts at 93F , around body temp
Plugra- European style butter manufacturer from Vermont- Plus+gras- 83% fat
-Advantage of higher % butters- gets harder when cold, better for pie doughs, danishes, croissants
-Disadvantage- low melting point

-rendered pork fat
-pure white in color
-remains both plastic +elastic- advantage
-good for flavor
-high in trans+ saturated fats
plastic- doesn’t melt as easily, can flatten/spread out when cold
elastic- when spread- holds its shape, doesn’t shrink back
100% fat- moisture + animal products extracted out

Margarine- made from vegetable fats, coloring, flavoring, emulsifiers, preservatives + added vitamins
-melts at higher temp
-Hydrogenated- solidified by exposure to hydrogen yielding a molecular transformation
-taste not as good
-80% fat, 16% water, like butter
-melts at 94F- greasier mouth feel

Shortening- Crisco
-any fat in the bakeshop, generally refers to a solid, white flavorless fat made for baking
-emulsified shortenings, aka high ratios used in cakes where a high percentage of sugar is used
-melting points for baking shortenings are 115-120F

-extracted from variety of plants, seeds, nuts
-highly effective shortener, due to its liquid composition
-yields a fine-textured product desirable in cakes + muffins
-generally vegetable oil is used
- cannot be substituted for solid fat

Smoking points- when heated to far, smokes and burns
Oils- higher
Shortening/frying oils- very high
Butter- low
Olive oil- low
-Fats dissolve/melt at 93, 120-125F smoking
clarified butter- slowly heated to get rid of moisture, milk solids fall to bottom

Milk and Cream
-defined by butter fat content
-skim milk less than .5%
-low fat milk .5- 3.5% (1%, 2%)
-whole milk 3.5% min
-half+half- 10-18%
-light cream 18-30%
-light whipping cream 30-36%
-heavy cream- 36% min
Devonshire cream/ clotted cream- so high fat content clotted effect- 60% min

Concentrated Milk
-evaporated milk
-60% water removed
7.2% milk fat, 25.5% milk solids
-evaporated skim available

Sweetened condensed
-60% water removed
-40-45% sugar added

Powdered milk
-whole or skim- milk solids
atomized milk powder-protects flavor, doesn’t caramelize lactose as much
NFDMS- not fat dairy milk solids
DMS- dairy milk solids

Cultured Dairy Products
-bacteria (culture) raises acid content
-Buttermilk; skim or lowfat
-Sour cream; 18% fat min
-Crème fraiche; less acidic than sour cream (in the US)
-Yogurt; from skim/ lowfat/ or whole milks

Dairy Processing
- standard 161F for 15 sec
- ultra pasteurization- 275F for 2-4 sec
- UHT (ultra high temp processing) 280F for 2-6 sec, aseptic packaging, no refrigeration necessary
Homogenization- fat globules uniformly dispersed throughout liquid
Fortification- add vit A+ D
Skimming- fat removed my centrifuge- like giant spin cycle- fats stick to sides liquid fall down
Storag 32- 34F

Compound butters- used more in restaurants, butter whipped w/ flavors or olive oil

Suet- rendered beef fat

Purchase considerations: smoke point, flavor, cost

Fat + Oil terminology- saturated- carbon links in lipid chain have hydrogen attached
Monounsaturated- one open carbon link
Polyunsaturated- more than one open link

Olive oil standards
-extra virgin, un refined

BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Chocolate

-native to S. America; cacao used to make beverages, had a lot of caffeine, called bitterwater
-seeds of cacao tree have intense bitter taste, must be fermented to develop flavor, after being roasted and ground can be called cocao
-Aztecs associated it with god of fertility, gave to Spanish who brought to Europe

Mid 19th cent, Swiss chemists Nestle + Lindt developed conching- procedure that enhance texture + smoothness
-Neslte invented milk choc

Criollo- most expensive, purest forms of cacao
Forastero- cheaper, 80% worlds crop, grows easier
Trinitario- used not as much, has trouble growing, susceptible to disease

Chocolate grows between the tropic of cancer and tropic of Capricorn

Make up of chocolate
-choc liquor/ cocoa mass (unsweetened choc)
-cocoa butter
-milk solids
-emulsifiers- soy based or corn based

choc mass- extremely strong flavor w/out sweetness, and additive/ in supplement of something else

cocoa butter- fat out of bean, 6 dif fat crystals, can carry complex flavors of choc
-also used in cosmetics
-melts at dif levels/ temps

100% choc- contains cocoa mass, butter, sugar
dark choc- semi sweet- 78% choc, 28% sugar
bitter sweet- 60% choc, 40% sugar
-varied amnts between brands, more expensive w/ more butter

milk solids added to dark choc= milk choc
- white choc not contain cocoa mass

Couverture choc- coating/ covering choc for candies- should have at least 32% cocoa butter

Milk choc- cocoa butter, milk, sweeteners, vanilla added to choc liquor
- in US should contain 10% choc, 12% whole milk

White choc- cocoa butter, no cocoa solids
Sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids + vanilla

Cocoa powder
-dutchman, Van Houten, patented dry process extraction method for obtaining choc powder
-Natural- tastes very bitter, gives deep choc flavor to baked goods, no fat
-Dutch processed or Alkalized- treated w/ an alkali to neutralize its acids, makes it less acidic tasting, not as strong

If recipe contains an acid, use natural cocoa, if not use dutch processes
For 3T dutch processed
- 3T natural plus pinch baking soda
For 3T natural
-3 T dutch plus pinch cream of tartar

-uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size
-untempered choc has following characteristics:
surface of choc appears dull + unfinished
choc crumbles rather than snaps when broken
-Uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed choc are result of consistently small butter crystals produced by tempering process

tempering- melt choc to 113F then cool down to 80F, then warm up to 88-89F to work with

2 types of blooms- fat + sugar

Complexity of cocoa butter
-fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in 6 dif forms
-beta crystals
-all crystals melt at dif temps

tempering methods
-talbling- working melted choc on cold marble slab

Blooming of choc
- sugar bloom- sugar rises to surface- when put in cooler, cause discoloration, result sugar crystals rising cause of humidity
- fat bloom- similar to sugar but w/ fat

non tempering choc or Pate a glacee
-cocoa butter is extracted + replaced w/ less complex fat that stays solid at warmer temps
-doesn’t need tempering
-storage is not as much a problem
-mouth feel is not great

Ways to melt choc
-effector- heated fat that goes under bowl
-double boiler- careful not to let any water get in
-bain marie
-oven at 100F, sit overnight or long time

-lactose (milk sugars) caramelize at lower temps than sucrose

Storing- sensitive to temp + humidity
-temps 59-63F
-choc should be stored away from other foods as can absorb aromas
-packed/ wrapped in dark place

Video- the Story of Chocolate
Cooa nibs- grue de cacao
Conching- flavors allowed to develop
Pistols- small coin like pieces of chocolate

Chocolate Quiz
List 3 types beans used in chocolate production
-Criollo, Forastero, Trinitario

What is composition of types of chocolate:
Choc liquor- cocoa mass, cocoa butter
Dark choc- choc liquor, sugar, cocoa butter
Milk choc- choc liquor, sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids
White choc- cocoa butter, sugar, milk solids, vanilla
Cocoa powder- pressed choc mass w/ cocoa butter removed

What is difference between choc chips, choc pistols, and couverture choc?
Chips are tempered to hold their shape when baking, but don’t snap when you bite them. The have less butter in them so they don’t spread when baking.
Couverture choc is higher in butter so it spreads and coats truffles and candies nicely. It is not too thick and melts to a thin coating choc.
Pistols are tempered and snap when you bite them and have a nice shine. They are in that shape to melt down easily and are used for ganaches, mousses, etc.

How many types of fat crystals are there in chocolate? 6
What temperature do all the crystals of cocoa butter melt? 113F

Choose any method of melting choc and describe how you would proceed and precautions to take with that method-
Using a double boiler to melt your chocolate you would need a small pot with some water over an induction burner, to start. A bowl, larger than the pot by whose base is still small enough to receive plenty of steam from below, is placed over the heating water. The chocolate slowly melts in the bowl. You would need to be careful of any condensation or water that might come in contact with the chocolate, which would cause it to seize and might ruin the tempering process.

BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Sugars

Sugar, Flour and Sugar Quiz

-color- caramelization
-tenderizer- tenderizes gluten protein structure
-food for yeast- sucrose, maltose, lactose, fructose
-preservative- jams + marmalades
-creaming and foaming agent to assist in leavening

kitchen sugar is sucrose, refined sugar from sugar cane and sugar beets- composition is identical
-in processing- cane is crushed to extract juice, solution is boiled and cleaned, uncrystalized liquid by product is molasses
-raw sugar is cleaned further= turbinado sugar- products is further bleached= granulated, white sugar

Turbinado sugar
-demerara sugar, closest to raw sugar
-creamy color and caramel flavor
-high + variable moisture makes it an undesirable substitute for brown granulated sugar
hygroscopic- property of sugar that absorbs moisture

Sanding sugar
- large, uniform crystals
- -used for garnishing baked goods
- egg wash and dust w/ sugar before baking
- excellent option for crème brulee, on top of amaretti or brioche

Granulated sugar
-size may vary
-source- sugar beets or cane
-aids in preserving, creaming agent, foaming agent, tenderizer, caramelizer

Brown sugar
-granulated sugar w/ a portion of molasses reintroduced
-more hygroscopic than granulated
-imparts smoky flavor

Superfine sugar
-more finely ground
-cuts in finer air cell structure when creaming or foaming

-6x or 10x- ground 10’s as fine as granulated
- Percentage of cornstarch added during processing, helps control spread by adding additional starch + cutting in finer air cell structure

Corn syrup
- high fructose corn syrup
- liquid form: hygroscopic, aids in crystallization in sugar cooking, helpful in baking- prevents sugar from crystallizing. Honey naturally high in fructose
Light syrup- not as much glucose
Dark syrup- molasses added back for flavor
Corn syrup- higher amt glucose
Liquid glucose- highest amt glucose, extremely sticky, holds lots of water, absorbs lots of moisture

Glucose- thick syrup extracted from starch
-less sweet and hygroscopic
-can be substituted for corn syrup

Invert sugar- honey
-sugar syrup produced by refining sucrose w/ an acid
-stays in liquid state and resists crystallization
-20-30% sweeter than sucrose

-made of glucose and fructose, created by honey bees from nectar collected from flowers
-highly hygroscopic

Malt sugar
-liquid sweetener made form germinated barley or wheat grains
-aids in fermentation and gluten elasticity

Carbohydrates= maltose, sucrose
Maltose= fructose
Sucrose= glucose, fructose

Breads made with beers use maltose

-liquid by product of sugar refining
-edible molasses only from sugar cane

Maple syrup
-sap of sugar maple
-1 tree makes 12 gal sap each season, 30-40 gal sap= 1 gal syrup

Flour/ Sugars Quiz
Which of the following flours is strongest?
Patent flour pumpernickel flour
Pastry flour cake flour

Which of the following is not a function of sugar in baked goods?
Increase keeping qualities help crust develop color
Create firmness or structure provide food for yeast

Starchy interior of wheat grain is called-
Gliadin germ
Gluten endosperm

Invert sugar has which of the following properties?
It is sweeter than regular granulated sugar
it doesn’t crystallize as easily as regular sugar
it helps keep baked goods moist
all of the above

How do you test for a bucket of bread flour?
Feels smooth when between fingers
Feels coarse when rubbed between finger
Clumps when pressed in palm of hand
Falls apart when pressed in palm of hand

10x sugar is pure sugar (sucrose) –False
Being a whole grain, wheat flour does not contain any fat so there is not chance for it going rancid- False
Molasses can be extracted from cane sugar as well as beet sugar- False

List parts of wheat kernel and explain their role:
-Endosperm is interior part of kernel and makes up most flours
-bran is protective shell of kernel and is very fibrous
-germ contains proteins and fats and can go bad if ground and not refrigerated

BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Flour

Video- Power of Flour
Most impt staples in a kitchen
-wheat flour

Wheat flour
-most impt ingredient in a bakeshop, gives strength and structure as well as texture to baked good
-different growing conditions yield different types of wheat
-impt to know whether wheat is hard or soft

Hard Wheat
-glutentin + gliadin= 2 proteins in wheat flour- w/ presence of water will form bond= gluten
-form elastic in dough, holds bread together
-this type of wheat yields strong flours usually reserved for yeast dough and other breads
Soft Wheat
-lower in protein, used more for pastries and cakes
-impt to be able to recognize difference between flours by sight and feel
-substituting will make difference with final products

Wheat composition
Bran- high in fiber, insoluble fiber, adds roughage, hard protective covering
Germ- embrio of wheat, where nutrients are, stuff that can go bad, fat
Endosperm- where all flour milled from, 85% of wheat grain; 67-73% starch, 7-15% protein

Types of Flour
Straight flour
Patent flour- bread flour, milled from inner part of endosperm, lighter color + finer texture 11.5-12.5%
Clear flour- comes from area closer to bran making it darker. Protein 13.5-15.5%
High gluten flour- crusty and chewy breads, 13.5-14.5%, produced from spring wheat
Pastry flour- weaker for quick breads and cookies 8.5-10% protein
Cake flour- weakest, high in starch 7.5-8.5% or lower
All purpose- 11-11.5%
Self rising flour- contains baking powder + sometimes salt, shouldn’t be used in commercial kitchen
Whole wheat flour- made by grinding entire kernel 12-13%. Harder grain because includes bran, denser, heavier, bran cuts some gluten strands- not as much structure

BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Eggs

-most commonly used birds eggs are chicken, duck goose
-size, protein content will vary
-most commercially produced chix eggs are unfertilized

Shell- 10% of weight
-made of calcium carbonate
-porus, odor exchange
-salmonella would be on outside
-shell color determined by breed of hen- no effect on flavor
-inner membrane creates air gap- sign of age

-1/3 of volume, ¾ of calories
-contains lecithin, fat, vitamins + minerals
-coagulates at 149-150F
-chalazae- cord which anchors yolk in place

-2/3 of volume
-7/8 water and about 1/6 protein (albumin)
-contains sulfur, potassium, sodium, and chlorine

Coagulation temperatures
-egg white coagulates between 144 and 149F or 62-65C
-egg yolk coagulates between 149 and 158F, 65-70C
-whole eggs between 144- 158F

Temperature at which an egg coagulates can be changed
- to raise temp- add sugar, lower # of eggs used
Anglaise coagulates at 180-185F- lots of sugar
-to lower temp- add salt, raise # eggs used

Using eggs in baking
-Structure- protein hardens when cooked, holds shape, works this way in cakes
-Moistness- protein and water, when congeals can hold lot of water, milk, cream
-Aeration- albumin protein catches air when expands, denaturing process of forming bonds and structure with a lot of strength
-Shine/ glaze- egg wash before baking bread. Proteins and fats caramelize
-Binding- water holds ingredients together
-Thickening- by coagulation in custards
-Helps carry flavor- fats help carry flavor
-Imparts color to product due to carotene

Egg whites- thin albumin- more watery
Thick albumin- more elastic

Egg Market forms
-shell or fresh:
-dozens- retail, “loose” packed in flats, case of dozens
-Liquid- fresh, frozen, pasteurized (have a little sugar in them)
-dried- baking and processing
-whites- liquid or frozen
-yolks- liquid or frozen
-special blends- more yolks, salt, sugar
-hard boiled- 5 gal bucket

-contamination by pathogenic bacteria like salmonella
-most experts advise people to cook thoroughly before eating, heat kills bacteria
-shells act as hermetic seals which guard against bacteria entering, but seal can be broken through improper handling or if laid by unhealthy chickens

Raw vs. cooked eggs
-protein in raw eggs only 51% bio available, cooked egg close to 91% bio available- 2x’s as absorbable

Changes in eggs during aging
-amount of think white increase
-yolk absorbs water from the white
-the chalazae disintegrate
-loss of water through shell
-increase in air cell size
-both white and yolk increase in pH

Tips in using eggs
-avoid pooling- break into small container then move to larger
-use room temp eggs
-sugar and eggs- exothermic reaction- start cooking
-cool quickly after cooking to avoid overcooking- if over boil will see green ring around yolk from iron sulfide
-no egg yolks mixed with whites
-store egg yolks and shelled eggs under refrigeration
-egg whites can be kept at room temp, keep open for a little bit before covering, let good bacteria form- lycism

BPA 102: Culinary Math Continued

Converting recipes, Food Cost, Baker's Percentage

Converting Recipes

Terms used in costing recipes
-cost per unit
As-purchased cost/ number of units= $/ unit

-total cost= number of units x cost per unit
-round only at last step or you will have significantly larger rounding error

pg 128, #’s 13, 15
75 lb carrots, cost $150
150/75= $2/lb TC=70lb x $2= $140

12 lb box steaks cost $6.99/lb, each steak is 6 oz. cost/steak=? How many steaks in box?
TQ= 12 lbs steak= 6oz
APC/unit= $6.99/ lb
12 lb x 16 oz/1lb= 192 oz= 32 steaks
#steaks=TQ/(weight/steak) = 32
APC= 6.99 x 12= 83.88/32= $2.62/ steak

Case= $71.82, 18 jars, 8 oz jar, 1T= 18g
How much one jar cost?
71.82/18= $3.99/ jar
3.99/8 oz= .498= 4.50/oz =APC/unit
1T=18 g 18g x 1 oz/28.35 g= .635 oz
1 T- .635 oz/ 3= .21 oz/t
¾ cp= .75 cp x 16 t/1cp= 12T x 3t/1T= 36 t
8 oz jar= $3.99 = $.49875/oz

Edible Portion Cost-
As purchased cost/ yield percent

$.50/ lb APC
EPC= .50/100%= $.50
Total cost of ½ lb flour= .60 x .5= $.25
Totcal cost ½ lb strawberries- EPQ
$2/lb APC
EPC= $2/.87= $2.298/lb
.5lb x 2.298= $1.149

4.5 lbs cleaned lettuce= EPQ= 4.5 lbs
# portions= 20

weight/ head= 2.25 lbs yield = 74%
APC= $.59/ head cost/lb?
2.25lb= $.59 .59/2.25= .2622= APC/lb
EPC= APC/yield % EPC=.2622/.74= $.35/lb
Total cost=EPQ x EPC= 4.5 x .35= 1.575= $1.60

4 lb raspberries, $3.29/ lb y=97%
how much 1 lb clean berries cost?
4lbs x 3.29= $13.16= 4lbs
EPC=APC/ yield EPC= 3.29/lb / .97= $3.39/ lb

Food costing chart
Salmon filet
EPQ= 2.25 lb
APC/unit= $5.54/lb
Yield= 100
EPC/unit= 5.54/100%= 5.54/lb

Lime juice
$.14 each
lime weighs 2.2 oz 1T juice= ½ fl oz
2T z .5 fl oz/ 1T= 1 oz juice
2.2oz APQ=EPQ/Y 2.2oz/.35= APQ= 6.28
APC/unit= .14/2.2 EPC/unit= .0636/.35
1 lime= 2.2 oz
.14=2.2 oz= $.0636/ oz= /.1817/oz
Total cost= EPQ x EPC tcost= 1 oz x $.1817
Total cost= $.18

Parsley chopped 2 T
$.49/ bunch 1 cp= 1oz 1bunch=.33 lbs
$.49/.33 lb= $1.48/lb/ 16= $.0925/ oz
EPC/unit= APC/Y EPC/unit=.0925/.76 EPC=.121/oz= $.12/oz
1 cp= 1oz
16T= 1 cp
2T x 1cp/16 T x 1oz/1cp= .125 oz

TC parsley= $.02
Juice- $.19
Salmon- $12.47
= 12.68
10 portions $1.28/ portion

Food Cost
Total cost of food production
-does not include heat, untilities, rent, cooking gas, etc
-can be expressed as cost/month
Food cost % FC%=FC/sales 3000/10000= 30%
TFC/#portions= 12.68/10= $1/26/ portion
Selling price= $1.27/.30= $4.23

Baker’s Percentage

Flour is 100%, if no flour than sugar is 100%

Egg whites 480 ml 70.6% 480/680
Sugar 680 g 100% 680/680
Corn syrup 340 g 50% 340/680
Water 240 ml 35% 240/680
Unsalted butter 1020 g 150% 1020/680
Yield 405%

Each cupcake has 1 oz frosting
3000 cupcakes= 3000 oz

whites= 70% x 3000= 2118

conversion factor= 3000 x 405%= 7.4

Bread recipe
5000 g flour 100% 23.148 oz
6 L water 120% 27 oz
4000 g rye flour 80% 18.51 oz
200 g salt 4% .92 oz
350 g shortening 7% 1.6 oz
300 g yeast 6% 1.38 oz
4000 g raisins 80% 18.5 oz
1500 g sugar 60% 6.94 oz
200 g dough conditioner 4% .925 oz
30 ml vanilla .06% .138 oz
25 ml lemon extract .05% .115oz
.015 kg cardamom powder .3% .069 oz
yield 432%

10 baguettes- 10 oz each
15 baguettes- 10 oz each

100 oz/432%= .23148= conversion factor

34 oz bread flour
have 30 oz
30/100%= conversion factor
multiply bakers % by conversion factor to find new recipe oz

BPA 102: Culinary Math

Converting weights/volumes, calculating yields, Fruit Trifle Homework and Quiz 1

From Culinary Math pg . 37 problem #11
If scoop # relates to # of scoops that are in 32 fl oz , or 1 qt, then explain how you calculate the # of fl oz in a number 12 scoop-
32/12= 2 oz cookie

pg. 39 #23
If you have 1 cp flour and use 4 T, what percent is left in cup?
1 cp=16T
Use 4= 12 T left
12/16= 75%

I have 8 oz parsley in a recipe. Can you use cup measure to measure it?
No- weight vs volume difference

Metric system measure
Kilo gram milligram
1 1000 1,000,000
.000001 .001 1

1 oz= 28.35 g
1 lb= 450 g= .450 kilo
1 kilo= 2/21 lbs
1 L= 1000 ml= 33.8 fl oz
1 qt= 32 fl oz= 948 ml

Liter is larger than quart

Pounds and ounces convert to grams and kilograms

Fluid ounces, tsp, cups, quarts, gallons convert to ml and L

What is heavier 1 oz parsley or 1 g?
1 oz
10 lb sugar= 4.5 kg
¼ t salt= 1.25 ml
1.5 cup olive oil= .355 L
10 oz flour= 383.5 g
2 T milk= 30 ml

8 fl oz= 1 cp
12 fl oz= 1.5 cp
1 T= 15 ml

33.8x= 12
12/33.8= .355 L

Bridge Method
-unit of measurement to be converted
-unit of measurement to be converted to
-conversion factor or equivalences

200 fl oz x 1 cp/ 8 fl oz=
200/8= 25 cp

36 oz to lbs
36 oz x 1 lb/16 oz= 36/16= 2.25 lbs

78 t to cups
78t x 1 cp/ 48 t= 78/48= 1.625 cp

3 t= 1T
1 cp= 16T
1 cp= 48t

128 t is how many cups?
128t x 1 cp/ 48t= 2.66 cp

75 fl oz= .586 gallons
75 fl oz x 1 cp/ 8 fl oz x 1 gallon/ 16 cp= .586 gal

13 lbs x 16oz/ 1 lb= 256 oz

.875 pt x 2 cp/ 1 pt= 1.75 cp

24 t x 1cp/ 48 t= .5 cp

Converting mixed weights
-Converting 2 lbs 12 oz to only lbs
12 oz x 1 lb/ 16oz= .75 lb
2 lb + .75= 2.75 lbs

Convert 26T into cp
26T x 1 cp/ 16T= 1.625 cps

.625 cp= .635 cp x 16T = 10T

3 bunches beets- each weighs 2 lbs 9 oz. How many lbs of beets do you have?
9 oz x 1 lb/16 oz
.5625 lb x 3= 1.6875
2 x 3= 6
6+ 1.6875= 7.6875 lbs beets
.6875 lb x 16 oz/ 1 lb= 11 oz
= 7 lbs 11 oz beets

Converting between weight and Volume measures

Ingred. Vol Fluid oz Ounces
Gound allspice 1T ½ ¼
Info indicates that 1T of allspice weighs approx. .25 oz but is .5 fl oz or 1T

How many T of nutmeg from 30g nutmeg?
1T= .25 oz
30g x 1t/28.35g= 1.058= 1
1 oz x 1T/ .25 oz= 4T

1cp cinnamon
baking powder
mustard seed

1cp x 16T/1cp= 16T/1 x .25 oz= 4 oz

1T= 2/3 oz
1 cp x 16T/1 cp= 16T x 2/3 oz/ 1T= 10 2/3 oz

baking powder
1T= ½ oz
1 cp x 16 T/ 1 cp= 16T x .5 oz/1T= 8 oz

mustard seed
1T= 2/5 oz
1 cp= 16T/1cp=16T/1cp x 2/5 oz/1T= 6.4 oz

-is proportion of usable portion of the ingredient as compared to the original purchase quantity
-usable as apposed to waste part
-1 lb butter- yield is 1lb as weight of wrapper is negligible
-but yield of strawberries only 87% of original amt

APQ- weight, count, volume
As purchased quantity

EPQ- edible portion quantity

Trim- APQ- EPQ

Not all trim is waste or loss- if can be used in stocks, sauces, etc. it makes more cost effective for kitchen

Yield%= EPQ/ APQ x 100

Factors that affect yield
-yields are approximate guides and will change based on skill of worker
-size of product
-condition of produce

pg 103 #21
4 stalks of rhubarb weigh 1 lb each. Purchase 30 stalks, trim to 6lb 14 oz. What is the yield?
30 stalks x 1 lb/ 4 stalks= 7.5 lbs= APQ
7.5 lbs x 16 oz/ 1 lb= 120 oz= APQ
6lb x 16 oz/1lb + 14 oz= 110 oz= EPQ
110/120= 91.67%= yield %

Applying the yield %
Calculating APQ
Recipe Item Recipe quantity yield%
Bananas, sliced 4lb 7 oz 68%
4.4375 lb
yield%= EPQ/APQ
.68=4.4375/APQ .68x= 4.4375/.68
APQ= 6.5 lbs

Calculate EPQ
4 watermelons weigh 15 lb each. How many 4 oz portions from cleaned melon?
60 lb x 16 ox/1lb= 960 oz= APQ
Y= 46%
.46= EPQ/960 oz= 441.6 oz
441.6oz/ 4 oz= 110.4= 110 servings
Plum cobblers- 125 guests
25 lb plums, how many plums go in each cobbler?
25 lb= APQ
.85 x=EPQ/ 25= 21.25lbs/ 125
.17 lbs x 16 oz/ 1 lb= 2.72 oz per person

Fruit Trifle Homework
Recipe calls for 4 cps or 1.5 lb fruit
1 cp each variety for 12 people

12 people/ 4 cps= 160 people/x= 12x= 160 x 4= 12x=640/12
x= 53 1/3= 54 cups/ 8 fruits= 6.75 cps each fruit

.87= 6.75/APQ= .87APQ=6.75/.87= APQ= 7.75 cps

.97= 6.75/APQ= .97APQ=6.75/.97= APQ=6.959 cps

.86=6.75/APQ=.86APQ=6.75/.86= 7.849 cps

.82= 6.75/APQ= .82APQ=6.75/.82= 8.232 cps

.94=6.75/APQ= 6.75/.94= 7.181 cps

.52=6.75/APQ= 6.75/.52= 12.981 cps

.68= 6.85/APQ= 6.75/.68= 9.926 cps

.76= 6.75/APQ= 6.75/.75= 8.88 cps

Quiz 1
Find if first item is greater, if second is greater, if they are equal, or if there is not enough info to decide
3 1/3 cp 1 quart
3 1/3 cp x 1 pt/2cp x 1 qt/2 pt= .83 qt= 1 quart is greater

12 fl oz ¾ cp
12 fl oz x 1cp/ 8 fl oz= 1.5 cp= 12 fl oz is greater

32 fl oz 2 lbs
There is not enough info, you can’t convert volume and weight without knowing the specific density

1.33 lbs 600g
1.33lbs x 1 kilo/ 2.21 lbs x 1000g/ 1 kilo= 601.8 g= They are almost the same

You are portioning bread dough. How many full 17 oz portions can be obtained from 15.5 kilo?

15.5 kilo x 2.21lb/ 1 kilo x 16 oz/1lb= 548.08oz/ 17= 32 portions

BPA 102: Cups, Spoons, and Pounds

Measuring Ingredients and Units of Measurement

Equipment- Dry ingredients such as flour and sugar are measured in plastic or metal measuring cups
-dry measuring cups allow the cook to fill the cup to over flowing then level with a straight edged utensil
Measuring ingredients by volume:
-liquids measured in transparent glass or translucent plastic liquid measuring cups- have spout for pouring and space between top measure and rim so liquids don’t spill while being transferred to bowl
-small amounts measured using plastic or metal measuring spoons
-dry and liquid ingredients and fats may be measured using measuring spoons
-equipment may provide metric measures, imperial measures, or both

Measuring Flour
-flour may settle and pack during shipping and storage, stir flour in its container before measuring
-if recipe calls for sifted flour, spoon stirred flour into the sifter, sift the flour, then measure it
-spoon flour into dry measuring cup, filling to over flow
-level flour off by dragging a straight edged utensil across top- knife or off set spatula

Granulated Sugar
-granulated sugar does not pack, no stirring required
-use same method as flour

Small Amounts
-when measuring small amounts of dry ingredients, such as flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt, spices- measuring spoons are used
-overfill spoon and level off with straight edge

Liquid Ingredients
-measuring cups for liquids must be placed on level surface
-avoid lifting cup to read measure, will tilt causing you to read inaccurate amount
-read level at bottom of the meniscus

Small amounts
-may be measure with measuring spoons

Fats by Volume
-measured in method for measuring liquids
Solid fats
-include butter, margarine, lard, and shortening
-several methods may be used, depending on what kind of fat measuring and how much fat needed
Soft Solid Fats
-soft fats- spreadable margarine or softened butter can be pressed into dry measure – avoid air bubbles- and leveled off
Firm solid fats
-lard, shortening, cold butter and baking margarine can be cut from block if package provides measurements
- some firm fats are pre-portioned
-some squares of baking margarine are wrapped in 125 ml or cup portions
-may also be measured by water displacement

Problem with Volume Measurements
-because specific density varies from item to item, volume measurement presents a great opportunity for inconsistency

Measuring by Weight
-If a formula is written by volume, measure the ingredient by volume and weigh each measurement noting the outcome. Will make recipe easier to scale and convert in future
-Remember 1 cp flour will not weight 8 oz
Only 3 common ingredients in bake shop are true by weight and volume- milk, eggs, water
-Balance scales are favored for large quantities of dry ingredients and for scaling doughs
-left plate is hopper or scoop
-right is tare- has same weight as hopper
-weights in lbs or Kilos
-brass piece- slide- with quarter oz settings up to one lb or gram settings
-digital scales are more compact, affordable
-tare button to zero the weight, mode change setting from grams to oz

Imperial Units Measure
1 cp= 8 oz
2 cp= 16 oz= 1 pt= ½ quart
4 cps= 32 oz=2 pts= 1quart
16 cps= 128 oz= 8 pts= 4 quarts= 1 gallon
1 T= ½ oz
3 t= 1 T

Units of Measure-Volume
U.S. System
1 t= 1/6 oz
1 T= 3 t= ½ oz
1 cp= 8 oz

Metric System
Liter (L)
1 deciliter (dl) = 1/10 L
1 centileter (cl) = 1/100 L
1 milliliter (ml) 1/1000 L

U.S. System
-ounce, pound (lb) = 16 oz

1 kilogram (kg)= 1000 grams (g)

Liquid Volume/ weight correlation
-liquids with the same density as water can be measure equally by weight or volume

U.S. System
-ounce volume= ounce weight
1 pt= 1 lb

1 L= 1 kilo
1 ml= 1 g

U.S. Metric equivalents
1 kilo= 33.8 oz= 2.2 lbs
1 oz= 28.35 g
750 ml= 25.4 oz
1 L(33.8 fl oz)= 1 pt (32 fl oz)
1 gallon= 4 L
1 lb= 1 kilo

Standard Recipes
-blueprint for consistent finished products and consistent food cost. Format should include:
-name of product
-yield- by volume, weight, and/or # of portions
-standard portion sizze
-ingredients- listed in order of use and a description that corresponds to purchasing specifications:
-market form (fresh, frozen, canned, etc)
-size, weight, or count
-brand name (if applicable)
Quantity of each ingredient measured by weight whenever possible
-method of preparation- in clear, concise, professional terminology
-cooking times and temps
- presentation, garnish, holding procedures

BPA 102: Safety and Sanitation

-Pastry Chefs must have a thorough understanding of sanitation
-microorganisms thrive on certain foods, creating potentially hazardous foods (PHF)
-temperature is critical to limiting PHF’s
-keep hot foods hot, cold foods cold, frozen foods frozen
-these organisms need food, water, temperature, and a good pH
-cross contamination moves organisms to food and food handling surfaces

-to avoid cross contamination:
wash hands frequently
keep finger nails short, clean, and neat
keep wounds/cuts antiseptically bandaged
bathe frequently
keep hair clean and restrained
wear clean work clothes and avoid wearing jewelry
don’t eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum in food prep areas

Safe Workers
-are critical and OSHA mandates this
- some recommendations include:
clean up spills immediately
operate equipment properly
wear properly fitting clothing without jewelry
use knives/ equipment for intended purposes only
walk don’t run
keep exits, stairs, aisles clear
assume pots/pans are hot and handle them with your dry towels
position pot/pan handles out of the aisles
get help with heavy objects
lift with your legs
use stools or ladders to climb
keep breakables away from food storage or production areas
warn people when you are behind them, especially when carrying hot foods, liquids, or knives

Duties of Steward and Sanitarian

-The Steward basically is in charge of handling the supplies for the class, i.e. butter, eggs, fruits, etc., for that day, and bringing them to the kitchen. The stockroom downstairs is responsible for collecting items from the Chef Mangalore’s requisition form and delivering them on a cart to our kitchen. They check to make sure what we need is received and return any extra items to the store room, properly labeled of course. Bar Stock is the minimum amount of supplies that are kept in the kitchen and the Steward keeps track of ingredients and refills ingredient bins as needed, such as flours and sugars found in dry storage.

-The Sanitarian is in charge of keeping the kitchen sanitary and clean. Mostly though one follows the checklist in the red binder on the wall which keeps track of the conditions of the kitchen as we enter and before we leave. The temperatures of the coolers and freezers must be taken, taking note if the counters or floors are dirty, and assigning people to the proper filling of the dish sinks. Hot soapy water goes in the first, hot rinse water in the second and cold water, with a tested level of 200 PPM of sanitary solution, in the third. As a group we take care of finishing cleaning duties, sweeping and mopping the floors, wiping down all sinks and sanitizing all countertops and surfaces.

-creation and maintenance of conditions that will prevent contamination or food borne illness
Food contamination can be

MSDS- material safety data sheet- present in all kitchens, first aid about chemicals we use

200- Concentration of sanitation sink water

Potentially hazardous foods- high in protein- meats, dairy, eggs, tofu

Temperature danger zone- range in which pathogens reproduce most rapidly
40 degrees F- 140 F
4 C- 60C
always be heated or cooled quickly

Hand washing –extremely important
-after touching body, using tissue, unclean equipt, raw food, money, smoking, eating, restroom, sneeze, cough

Kitchen safety- preventing accidents
-clean up spills asap
-learn to use equipment properly
-wear properly fitting clothing
- use knives only for intended use
-walk don’t run
-always assume pot handle or sheet tray is hot and use dry side towels
-no sharp objects in sink

BPA 102: Professionalism

Professionalism in the Kitchen

Brief History
-Monsieur Boulanger was the founder of the first restaurant. Before this there was an association of guilds. M. Boulanger had a very popular stew called Restorative that the word restaurant comes from.
- Many people ate porridge and as it started fermenting they put it in the oven and bread formed- all very rudimentary until they started using yeast and the refinement of sugars that came from India and Asia

Pivotal Figures
-Antonin Carere- 1783-1833, Master of Cuisine, revolutionary Chef, came up with the number of courses, invented pastiage and blown sugar
-Charles Ranhofer- U.S. Chef, world renown, chef of Delmonico’s in NYC
-Cesar Ritz- Ritz hotel named after him
-Auguste Escoffier
Classical French cuisine was traditionally heavy and rich
Escoffier and Ritz wanted a new cuisine focused on simplified taste, which was healthy, light and fresh. They were the Chefs of the Savoy hotel in London. Escoffier invented Peach Melba.
-Mid 20th century to present- Fernand Point, Paul Bocuse, Jean + Pierre Troisgros, Alain Chapel, Francoise Brise, Louis Outher, Michel Guerard, Roger Verge, Gaston Lenotre, Lionel Poilane, Alice Waters of Chez Panisse in 1971, Lindsey Shire, Stelle Sullivan, Nancy Silverton, Maida Heatter- 1974 book “Book of Great Desserts”- revolutionary desserts

The kitchen Brigade may have an Executive Chef and/or Executive Pastry Chef
- sous chef
- below sous chefs are the chefs de cuisine

Pastry Chefs oversee
-breadbaker/ boulanger
-ice cream maker

Below them are pastry cooks 1,2,3 and then interns

Attributes a student must cultivate for a successful career:


BPA 105 Day 9: Apple Pie and Strawberry Tartlets

BPA 105
Day 9, Thursday

Lesson 9: Rolling out doughs and making pies with apple and strawberry fillings

The doughs are hard from being in the chiller. In looking at the two Pate Brisee doughs you can see larger chunks of fat in the flakier.

I dust my counter top with bread flour; it is high in protein and low in starch which means it has a low absorption of moisture and is better for the dough. The flour should be a light dusting and not in clumps. It is best to toss it at a side angle for a thin even coat. Also dust the top of the dough so it doesn’t stick to the rolling pin. Bang the top of the dough with the pin, this helps break it up a little bit and soften it so it rolls easier.

Keep rotating the dough and dust with more flour when necessary. The dough should be around 1/4” thick, enough to go over the sides of the pie tin. If it cracks, just pinch it back together. Since you want the dough to stick to the sides of the pan you don’t need to spray or butter it. Once the dough is rolled out, transfer it to the tin. You can roll it over the pin and then un-roll it over the tin. Gently lift the dough up and let it rest into the sides.

Make sure the dough is tight against the bottom and sides; you don’t want any air bubbles. The final step would be to press down on the bottom from the center outwards and then lifting the sides to release the air. Cut off the excess dough on the sides and go around pinching to create the ripple on the edge. Chill the dough before filling and again before baking.
Apple Filling
1 lb of peeled and sliced apples
lemon juice 5 g
sugar 100 g
cornstarch 10 g
salt .75 g/ a pinch
cinnamon 1 g/ large pinch
nutmeg .33 g
butter 10 g
We are using two types of apples for the pie today, Golden Delicious and Gala. The two apples add greater flavor to the pie than just one variety. When slicing them you want to be sure to have even slices so they will cook evenly. This pie has cornstarch in it and thus shouldn't be frozen. When frozen the starch looses its ability to stabilize and when thawed the juices will just start running out. You can use wheat flour if you plan on freezing the pie.

Using the vegetable peeler, go around the apple and peel in a concentric circle. Keep the peeled apple slices in lemon juice to prevent them from browning. Cut them into quarters and core them. 1/8" slices are a good size.

Transfer the apples and lemon juice to your mixing bowl and toss in the spices, cornstarch, and sugar. Hand toss the apples and let them sit about 5 minutes before putting them in the pie tin. The spices will draw out some juices and combine with the sugar.

When putting the apples into the tin, keep them as flat as possible. They will lose a lot of volume when baking, so if you have extra apple slices you can mound those in the center. Dot the butter on top and put the pie back in the cooler. The filling has to be cold otherwise the butter in the crust will start melting and you will end up with a greasy final product.
Egg Wash
-egg yolks and cream (half and half)
Using an egg wash will give a darker color and a softer texture. Apply the egg wash to the inside edges before putting on the top crust and to the top crust after it has been chilled.
Rolling out the flaky top crust
Dust the counter and the dough with flour. This dough will crack more because of the way is was mixed and the larger chunks of shortening. Press the cracks back together as you go along; sealing and pressing them at the beginning will make it better at the end. It is tougher to roll than the mealy dough. Make sure to use enough dusting flour as it will very easily stick to the counter. You can see the fat layer spread out thinly.
Roll to 1/4" and brush off the excess flour with a pastry brush. Have the pie ready with the egg wash along the inside and top of the crust; the wash will help stick the two doughs together. Lift and place it on top of the pie or roll and un-roll using the pin. Press down into the sides. You want it really tight against the sides. Press the two together into the crimped edge. Cut off the excess with a paring knife. Crimp the edges again to make a nice looking final product. At this point put the pie back into the cooler. After is has been chilled apply a very thin layer of egg wash across the top. You want to glaze it, not have spots. Cut air vents with a fork or knife in the top crust to allow for steam to release, this process called Docking.

The pies will take 30-40 minutes in the oven at 425 degrees F. It is a good idea to check them after 15 minutes just to make sure that everything is going well. After baking the pie should have a tender, golden crust. Let it cool fully before slicing.

Pate Sucree and Strawberry Tartlet filling

The Sucree dough is a lot smoother and has a yellow tinge to it as well as being more malleable. Dust the surface and dough and beat it down with the rolling pin. This dough gets a lot softer than the Pate Briseee. You can feel with your hand how nice and even the surface is. Roll from front to back to a thinner height since we are making tartlets.

We will be using the Second Tin pie baking method where you flop the dough over upside down tins, cup and stretch around the top, and cut them into four sections.

Cover with another tin on top and cut along the outside of the edge of the tin. When you flip it over you have a perfect tart shell. Fill the tin with beans or pie weights then par bake them at 350- 375 degrees F. Higher sugar doughs such as this one, bake at lower temperatures.

Strawberry Filling- Recipe makes enough for 4-5 pies
strawberries 10 lb
water 1 pt
sugar 2 lbs
cornstarch 4.5 oz
salt .17 oz
lemon juice 2 oz

With this filling we are using the cooked fruit method where we cook half of the strawberries with the salt, sugar, and lemon juice. This is an unbaked pie, just the crust has been baked. In a separate bowl make a slurry with the cornstarch and water. Whisk them together making sure all of the starch has dissolved. As it sits the cornstarch will start to separate from the water slightly, so whisk again before adding to the fruit. Once the fruit mixture has reached a full boil you can add the slurry. Stir the fruit as you slowly add the slurry.

The starch will make the product a little cloudy. Be sure to stir reaching the bottom, not just the surface, as the starch and sugars settle on the bottom and will be first to burn. The mixture will thicken more as it cooks, it has to reach 212 degrees F, a full boil, to cook the starch through. You should be continuously mixing keeping anything from burning at the bottom.

When done pour the hot filling over the other half of the berries and still them together. As the fruit cools it will thicken nicely. Use a ladle to fill the tartlets with the cooled filling. Put them in the cooler to set fully.