BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Chocolate

-native to S. America; cacao used to make beverages, had a lot of caffeine, called bitterwater
-seeds of cacao tree have intense bitter taste, must be fermented to develop flavor, after being roasted and ground can be called cocao
-Aztecs associated it with god of fertility, gave to Spanish who brought to Europe

Mid 19th cent, Swiss chemists Nestle + Lindt developed conching- procedure that enhance texture + smoothness
-Neslte invented milk choc

Criollo- most expensive, purest forms of cacao
Forastero- cheaper, 80% worlds crop, grows easier
Trinitario- used not as much, has trouble growing, susceptible to disease

Chocolate grows between the tropic of cancer and tropic of Capricorn

Make up of chocolate
-choc liquor/ cocoa mass (unsweetened choc)
-cocoa butter
-milk solids
-emulsifiers- soy based or corn based

choc mass- extremely strong flavor w/out sweetness, and additive/ in supplement of something else

cocoa butter- fat out of bean, 6 dif fat crystals, can carry complex flavors of choc
-also used in cosmetics
-melts at dif levels/ temps

100% choc- contains cocoa mass, butter, sugar
dark choc- semi sweet- 78% choc, 28% sugar
bitter sweet- 60% choc, 40% sugar
-varied amnts between brands, more expensive w/ more butter

milk solids added to dark choc= milk choc
- white choc not contain cocoa mass

Couverture choc- coating/ covering choc for candies- should have at least 32% cocoa butter

Milk choc- cocoa butter, milk, sweeteners, vanilla added to choc liquor
- in US should contain 10% choc, 12% whole milk

White choc- cocoa butter, no cocoa solids
Sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids + vanilla

Cocoa powder
-dutchman, Van Houten, patented dry process extraction method for obtaining choc powder
-Natural- tastes very bitter, gives deep choc flavor to baked goods, no fat
-Dutch processed or Alkalized- treated w/ an alkali to neutralize its acids, makes it less acidic tasting, not as strong

If recipe contains an acid, use natural cocoa, if not use dutch processes
For 3T dutch processed
- 3T natural plus pinch baking soda
For 3T natural
-3 T dutch plus pinch cream of tartar

-uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size
-untempered choc has following characteristics:
surface of choc appears dull + unfinished
choc crumbles rather than snaps when broken
-Uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed choc are result of consistently small butter crystals produced by tempering process

tempering- melt choc to 113F then cool down to 80F, then warm up to 88-89F to work with

2 types of blooms- fat + sugar

Complexity of cocoa butter
-fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in 6 dif forms
-beta crystals
-all crystals melt at dif temps

tempering methods
-talbling- working melted choc on cold marble slab

Blooming of choc
- sugar bloom- sugar rises to surface- when put in cooler, cause discoloration, result sugar crystals rising cause of humidity
- fat bloom- similar to sugar but w/ fat

non tempering choc or Pate a glacee
-cocoa butter is extracted + replaced w/ less complex fat that stays solid at warmer temps
-doesn’t need tempering
-storage is not as much a problem
-mouth feel is not great

Ways to melt choc
-effector- heated fat that goes under bowl
-double boiler- careful not to let any water get in
-bain marie
-oven at 100F, sit overnight or long time

-lactose (milk sugars) caramelize at lower temps than sucrose

Storing- sensitive to temp + humidity
-temps 59-63F
-choc should be stored away from other foods as can absorb aromas
-packed/ wrapped in dark place

Video- the Story of Chocolate
Cooa nibs- grue de cacao
Conching- flavors allowed to develop
Pistols- small coin like pieces of chocolate

Chocolate Quiz
List 3 types beans used in chocolate production
-Criollo, Forastero, Trinitario

What is composition of types of chocolate:
Choc liquor- cocoa mass, cocoa butter
Dark choc- choc liquor, sugar, cocoa butter
Milk choc- choc liquor, sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids
White choc- cocoa butter, sugar, milk solids, vanilla
Cocoa powder- pressed choc mass w/ cocoa butter removed

What is difference between choc chips, choc pistols, and couverture choc?
Chips are tempered to hold their shape when baking, but don’t snap when you bite them. The have less butter in them so they don’t spread when baking.
Couverture choc is higher in butter so it spreads and coats truffles and candies nicely. It is not too thick and melts to a thin coating choc.
Pistols are tempered and snap when you bite them and have a nice shine. They are in that shape to melt down easily and are used for ganaches, mousses, etc.

How many types of fat crystals are there in chocolate? 6
What temperature do all the crystals of cocoa butter melt? 113F

Choose any method of melting choc and describe how you would proceed and precautions to take with that method-
Using a double boiler to melt your chocolate you would need a small pot with some water over an induction burner, to start. A bowl, larger than the pot by whose base is still small enough to receive plenty of steam from below, is placed over the heating water. The chocolate slowly melts in the bowl. You would need to be careful of any condensation or water that might come in contact with the chocolate, which would cause it to seize and might ruin the tempering process.

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