BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Fats and Dairy

-general term for butter, lard, shortening, oil, + margarine
-color (in some cases, butter)
-moisture- butter, oils
-leavening- butter, shortening
-extend shelf life- oils
-shorten gluten strands- coats strands + keeps moist

-produced by agitating cream
-80% milk fat (higher in european style)
-16% water
-2-4% milk solids (lactose, etc.)
-melts at 93F , around body temp
Plugra- European style butter manufacturer from Vermont- Plus+gras- 83% fat
-Advantage of higher % butters- gets harder when cold, better for pie doughs, danishes, croissants
-Disadvantage- low melting point

-rendered pork fat
-pure white in color
-remains both plastic +elastic- advantage
-good for flavor
-high in trans+ saturated fats
plastic- doesn’t melt as easily, can flatten/spread out when cold
elastic- when spread- holds its shape, doesn’t shrink back
100% fat- moisture + animal products extracted out

Margarine- made from vegetable fats, coloring, flavoring, emulsifiers, preservatives + added vitamins
-melts at higher temp
-Hydrogenated- solidified by exposure to hydrogen yielding a molecular transformation
-taste not as good
-80% fat, 16% water, like butter
-melts at 94F- greasier mouth feel

Shortening- Crisco
-any fat in the bakeshop, generally refers to a solid, white flavorless fat made for baking
-emulsified shortenings, aka high ratios used in cakes where a high percentage of sugar is used
-melting points for baking shortenings are 115-120F

-extracted from variety of plants, seeds, nuts
-highly effective shortener, due to its liquid composition
-yields a fine-textured product desirable in cakes + muffins
-generally vegetable oil is used
- cannot be substituted for solid fat

Smoking points- when heated to far, smokes and burns
Oils- higher
Shortening/frying oils- very high
Butter- low
Olive oil- low
-Fats dissolve/melt at 93, 120-125F smoking
clarified butter- slowly heated to get rid of moisture, milk solids fall to bottom

Milk and Cream
-defined by butter fat content
-skim milk less than .5%
-low fat milk .5- 3.5% (1%, 2%)
-whole milk 3.5% min
-half+half- 10-18%
-light cream 18-30%
-light whipping cream 30-36%
-heavy cream- 36% min
Devonshire cream/ clotted cream- so high fat content clotted effect- 60% min

Concentrated Milk
-evaporated milk
-60% water removed
7.2% milk fat, 25.5% milk solids
-evaporated skim available

Sweetened condensed
-60% water removed
-40-45% sugar added

Powdered milk
-whole or skim- milk solids
atomized milk powder-protects flavor, doesn’t caramelize lactose as much
NFDMS- not fat dairy milk solids
DMS- dairy milk solids

Cultured Dairy Products
-bacteria (culture) raises acid content
-Buttermilk; skim or lowfat
-Sour cream; 18% fat min
-Crème fraiche; less acidic than sour cream (in the US)
-Yogurt; from skim/ lowfat/ or whole milks

Dairy Processing
- standard 161F for 15 sec
- ultra pasteurization- 275F for 2-4 sec
- UHT (ultra high temp processing) 280F for 2-6 sec, aseptic packaging, no refrigeration necessary
Homogenization- fat globules uniformly dispersed throughout liquid
Fortification- add vit A+ D
Skimming- fat removed my centrifuge- like giant spin cycle- fats stick to sides liquid fall down
Storag 32- 34F

Compound butters- used more in restaurants, butter whipped w/ flavors or olive oil

Suet- rendered beef fat

Purchase considerations: smoke point, flavor, cost

Fat + Oil terminology- saturated- carbon links in lipid chain have hydrogen attached
Monounsaturated- one open carbon link
Polyunsaturated- more than one open link

Olive oil standards
-extra virgin, un refined

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