BPA 102: The Baking Process; Mixing and Cooking Methods

Once ingredients are measured all baked goods must be mixed

M.O.P.- method of productions, i.e. creaming method

Mixing distributes ingredients evenly and helps form gluten and aerates the dough
- if don’t mix well have chunks. Not same final product, ife chunks butter- uneven spread when bakes
- - doughs have low moisture content- holds shape as made
- -batters more moisture (water, milk, dairy, fat, honey) consistency more slack

Mixing methods
Beating- wooden spoon or paddle, mix everything vigorously. Not very specific, commonly used
Blending- mixing two ingredients together, i.e. fruit purees in a blender, half +half and eggs in muffin, flour + baking powder in cookies
Creaming- incorporating fat and sugar, incorporating air, longer mix- lighter it gets, usually done in electric mixer w/ paddle. Mechanical leavener for cakes-air- be careful when mixing/folding not to bread up air bubbles
Cutting- take fat (butter/shortening/margarine) and cut into flour, distribute solid fat into flour. Food processor may break up fats too much
Folding- very lightly mixing dry and wet, liquids + flour w/out loosing a lot of air, if over fold/mix cake becomes rubbery and dense
Kneading- use hands + work the protein in dough, more develop + work gluten/dough- stronger, more stable it gets
Sifting- of dry ingredients, i.e. flour +baking soda, 2 reasons- remove lumps from humidity + pressure (compacting) want light flour, fluffy- make better final product for foam cakes. Gets rid of debris falling into container
Whipping- whisking, balloon whisk- flexible, silicone covered whisks good for low fat products like candies, not for fat products where they slide off surface

Cooking Methods
Dry heat- usually used for baking a lot, deck ovens, food a little dryer, convection ovens, for batter + dough
Moist heat- use steam heat for cooking; vegetables- steamed, blanched, dumplings, meat, melting choc in water bath, makes food more tender

Deck oven- table where put sheet tray, heat around
Convection oven- heat sources + fan- blow onto goods and bakes, air constantly moving
Heat transferred-
Conduction- metal to metal, direct contact, food product to heat sources- food to water- pizza stone
Convection- air, heated air- convection oven
Radiation- electrical heat source- broiler in oven, heat on top, deck/conventional oven

Broiling- done through air, direct heat from top, radiates to product

Deep frying- hot oil, put in doughnut batter, etc.

Pan frying- little bit of oil/ butter + product

Sautéing- more oil/ fat, for fruit

Moist Cooking- difference in water temperatures
Boiling- 212F, put products in boiling water
Poaching- fruits, vacuum packed then poached just below boiling- keeps flavor in, moist, sugars don’t caramelize b/c below boiling point
Simmering- just below boiling, one or two bubbles in water- creams and sauces

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