BPA 102: Ingredient Functions; Flour

Video- Power of Flour
Most impt staples in a kitchen
-wheat flour

Wheat flour
-most impt ingredient in a bakeshop, gives strength and structure as well as texture to baked good
-different growing conditions yield different types of wheat
-impt to know whether wheat is hard or soft

Hard Wheat
-glutentin + gliadin= 2 proteins in wheat flour- w/ presence of water will form bond= gluten
-form elastic in dough, holds bread together
-this type of wheat yields strong flours usually reserved for yeast dough and other breads
Soft Wheat
-lower in protein, used more for pastries and cakes
-impt to be able to recognize difference between flours by sight and feel
-substituting will make difference with final products

Wheat composition
Bran- high in fiber, insoluble fiber, adds roughage, hard protective covering
Germ- embrio of wheat, where nutrients are, stuff that can go bad, fat
Endosperm- where all flour milled from, 85% of wheat grain; 67-73% starch, 7-15% protein

Types of Flour
Straight flour
Patent flour- bread flour, milled from inner part of endosperm, lighter color + finer texture 11.5-12.5%
Clear flour- comes from area closer to bran making it darker. Protein 13.5-15.5%
High gluten flour- crusty and chewy breads, 13.5-14.5%, produced from spring wheat
Pastry flour- weaker for quick breads and cookies 8.5-10% protein
Cake flour- weakest, high in starch 7.5-8.5% or lower
All purpose- 11-11.5%
Self rising flour- contains baking powder + sometimes salt, shouldn’t be used in commercial kitchen
Whole wheat flour- made by grinding entire kernel 12-13%. Harder grain because includes bran, denser, heavier, bran cuts some gluten strands- not as much structure

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