BPA 102: The Baking Process; Yeast Breads and Enriched Doughs

Production stage for Yeast breads
Divided into 10 stages
-scaling ingredients- mise en place- 1 sheet tray
-mixing + kneading dough
-blending stage
-pick up
-clean up- all flour picked off sides, bowl clean

Bulk Fermentation/ Bench fermentation
-make huge mixer worth of dough, help yeast come back + flavors develop
-100% proof- doubles in size
-has random size gas bubbles
-punch down dough- get ride of excess carbon dioxide bubbles
-cut into sizes
-then rounded w/ clean finish on top, let rest 10 mins to allow gluten to relax
-make up- same as shape dough
-after shaped put in proofing chamber- needs to double in size- baguettes 1” to 2” end, humidity in room 80%, 90F, yeast comfortable, moisture + heat to grow in size
For lean doughs- then proofed + baked
- a lot of ovens have steam chamber- steam chamber- steam released- starch on outside gelatinizes- nice crust

Yeast bread mixing methods-
-SDM- straight dough methodg
-direct- mix all ingredients together
Pre-Fermentation- dough mixed in stages, dough from day before- pate fermentee
-sponge, old dough, sourdough starter- no commercial yeast
Sugars converted into acids + alcohol
Sponge- batter equal parts flour+ water w/ little bit yeast, let ferment couple hours or overnight

Bulk/Bench- entire dough fermented as a bulk
-Proofing- rise given, almost doubled in size, proofing room

3 factors controlled
-Ingredients- sugar, good for yeast- food, when too high, kill yeast- salt
-Dough temperature- if cold takes longer to ferment, if hot ferments fast
In professional kitchen never add warm water- use cold- mixer raises temp from friction between paddle and dough
-Room temperature- proof box/ room for doughs, if not will go faster, cold (winters) longer, no fixed amt of time- depends on temp

Qualities of Bread
-judged by- external + internal appearance- if too much salt bread is heavy, too little- crust is light. Sugar- too much- crust caramelized
-keeping properties

Egg Washes
-whole eggs + water- lot of shine
-eggs + milk- lactose makes for darker color
-milk- soft crust

Enriched Yeast Dough
-usually for breakfast- brioches, pastries, high fat

straight dough method

-molded and baked in pans or braided + cooled before unmolding to keep texture intact
-because of amount of fat
-never want to proof beyond 125F, yeast dies
-warm environment quick but reduces flavor
- b products- acids, alcohols, add flavor (from fermentation)
-retarder- put in cold area- not ferment as quickly

Methods for determining doneness
-Internal temp of 190F to 210F for lean dough
-tapping bottom for hollow sound- if not then moisture still there
-brown crust has formed
-internal temp for enriched dough 180-190F because high amts sugar and fat

Proofing + Baking Enriched yeast dough
-collapse easily, if over proofed, 85F, 80% humidity to proof, lower temp, below 85F best
-leave a little under proofed- butter coats gluten + makes more unstable- underproof makes more stable
-increase amt of yeast b/c added sugar bakes at lower temp, not above 400F

Laminated doughs
-puff pastry, croissants

Puff Pastry
- sweet + savory preps
- -no leavening agent- layers of fat + dough, moisture converts to steam + helps rise
-bouchees, canapé, vol-au-vents, feuilletees, pinwheels, bear claws, etc.

Croissant- lean dough/ Danish- enriched dough
-leavened by yeast + steam in layers, some have eggs

-Fat content very high, almost 50%

Danish incorporates softened butter in place of kneaded butter, contains eggs + yolks, softer dough

No comments:

Post a Comment