Review of Ingredient Functions and Midterm Practical

Day 9: Midterm Practical, Review of Notes on Ingredient Functions

How Mixing Works:
-It affects the final product. If mixed too aggressively the gluten will overdevelop in the flour. Using cake flour reduces the development of the gluten, making a more tender cake.
-Be careful when folding and mixing.
-You want consistent sizing of the foam; like boiling sugar: initially large bubbles that will get smaller and slower. With fine foaming it makes for a finer crumb.
-Cold vs. warm fat- cold will not be as smooth, not aerate as well, the mixture is not as homogenized.
-Speed of mixing- speed is friction, friction is heat. The heat of the egg foam- the warmth relaxes the proteins, allowing more air to be incorporated when whisking aggressively.
-Texture- flour makes a difference. Some flours make products dense or heavy. Starch makes them light, but has no elasticity.
-How much you mix once the moisture is added.

Creaming method- high fat cake
2 stage or 1 stage method
-1 stage- muffins
-2 stage- add oil to dry, whip egg foam, combine flour and batter, alternate liquid and dry
Low fat- have high sugar= low fat added. Light cakes, addition of meringue, make light, aerated product.

Look at method/cake to see what method to apply to them- methods render different products.

Ingredient Functions- everything has a purpose
Tougheners- when add moisture and bake they give structure, stability- flour, milk, egg proteins
Tenderizers- sugar, eggs, fat, chemical leaveners; extends shelf life
Moisteners- water, liquid, juice; necessary for gluten development
Driers- flour, corn starch, cocoa powder
Leaveners- mechanical- machine; chemical: baking soda and powder; biological: yeast; allow cake to rise- more tender and less dense
Emulsifiers- eggs- make a difference in the tenderness of a cake

Cake Finishes
-Enhance flavor profile; add another dimension to cake- Adding chocolate and coffee to buttercream significantly enhances/ chances the flavor.
-Change finished texture, mouth feel.
-Improve appearance.
-Improve shelf life of product- sealing cake (French buttercream doesn’t last as long as Italian because of the presence of the egg yolks.)

Types of Finishes:
-Liquid fondant- petit fours- cooked sugar. Gives a classic finish. Important not to heat above 100 degrees: it crystallizes. At the right temperature it forms a crust and nice sheen.
-Foam type- boiled/ meringue- important not to overcook the sugar. Gives an even, smooth presentation, nice to toast.
-Fudge- grainy, heavy. Cake has to be able to support it structurally and taste wise.
-Flat/ Water Icing- used on Danishes and breakfast pastries.
-Royal/ Decorator’s Icing- egg whites and powdered sugar.
-Glazes- ganache, brushable glaze, can be mixed with caramel. Gives a clear, shiny finish with no bubbles. Is able to be poured. Stays in place when chilled.
-Rolled Coatings- marzipan, fondant, modeling chocolate.

-Fresher eggs fill the shell
-Older eggs have a larger air cell and the yolk is darker as a result of the moisture no longer being present
-Eggs are 90% moisture and 10% protein
-Yolks are 80% fat, ½ solid and ½ moisture
-Amalase in human saliva can keep custards from setting
-The foaming element in eggs is lecithin
-Frozen egg whites contain thickeners- guar gum- that allow them to foam and stay stable
-They provide a thickener
-Frozen whites contain 2 whipping agents- Triethyl Citrate and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate- that make them whip faster. They don’t aid in stabilizing
-Some places add meringue powder to whites to make them more stable

Midterm Practical
Double recipe Genoise cake frosted with Italian buttercream, piped rosette border on top and bottom. One Genoise left unfinished.
Biscuit Joconde sponge roulade with mocha buttercream, piped scallop across spine of cake.

Frosted genoise with Italian buttercream

Biccuit Joconde roulade with mocha buttercream

Unfinished genoise

I was not that happy with this genoise. The crumb was not as tender as the past genoise I have made; I suspect this was from overmixing once the dry ingredients were added.

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